Futures Trading Arbitration Agreement
If you trade stocks or stock options in your IB account, you will be covered by a mandatory arbitration agreement, which states that any disputes regarding your account will be resolved through arbitration. The following optional arbitration agreement covers trading in futures or options on futures, in the event that you and your advisor choose to trade these investment products in your account. You are not required to sign the Futures Trading Arbitration Agreement below, but if you do not sign it your account will be restricted to a one contract trading limit.
Futures Trading Arbitration Agreement: Any controversy or claim between Interactive Brokers LLC ("IB") and the undersigned ("Customer") arising out of or relating to Customer's Account with IB, to transactions between IB and Customer, to the Customer Agreement with IB or any other agreement between IB and Customer, or to the breach of any such transaction or agreement shall, except as provided below, be resolved by arbitration before a forum chosen in accordance with the procedure set out below. If, by reason of any applicable statute, regulation, exchange rule or otherwise, Customer's advance agreement to submit a controversy to arbitration would not be enforceable by IB, this provision shall not permit Customer to enforce IB's advance agreement to submit to arbitration. Any award rendered in any arbitration conducted pursuant to this agreement shall be final, binding and enforceable in accordance with the laws of the State of Connecticut and judgment may be entered on any such award by any court having jurisdiction thereof.
At such time as Customer notifies IB that Customer intends to submit a claim to arbitration, or at such time as IB notifies Customer that IB intends to submit a claim to arbitration, Customer will have the opportunity to choose a forum from a list of three or more qualified forums provided by IB. A "qualified forum" is an organization whose procedures for conducting arbitrations comply with the requirements of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission ("CFTC") Rule 166.5.
As required by CFTC Rule 166.5, IB will pay any incremental fees which may be assessed by a qualified forum for provision of a mixed arbitration panel, unless the arbitrators hearing the controversy determine that Customer has acted in bad faith in initiating or conducting the arbitration. A "mixed arbitration panel" is an arbitration panel composed of one or more persons, a majority of whom are not members or associated with a member of a contract market or employee thereof, and who are not otherwise associated with a contract market.
In connection with this Arbitration Agreement, IB is required to furnish to you the following statement, pursuant to Rule 166.5 of the CFTC:
THREE FORUMS EXIST FOR THE RESOLUTION OF COMMODITY DISPUTES: CIVIL COURT LITIGATION, REPARATIONS AT THE COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION ("CFTC"), AND ARBITRATION CONDUCTED BY A SELF-REGULATORY OR OTHER PRIVATE ORGANIZATION.
THE CFTC RECOGNIZES THAT THE OPPORTUNITY TO SETTLE DISPUTES BY ARBITRATION MAY IN SOME CASES PROVIDE MANY BENEFITS TO CUSTOMERS, INCLUDING THE ABILITY TO OBTAIN AN EXPEDITIOUS AND FINAL RESOLUTION OF DISPUTES WITHOUT INCURRING SUBSTANTIAL COSTS. THE CFTC REQUIRES, HOWEVER, THAT EACH CUSTOMER INDIVIDUALLY EXAMINE THE RELATIVE MERITS OF ARBITRATION AND THAT YOUR CONSENT TO THIS ARBITRATION AGREEMENT BE VOLUNTARY.
BY SIGNING THIS AGREEMENT, YOU: (1) MAY BE WAIVING YOUR RIGHT TO SUE IN A COURT OF LAW; AND (2) ARE AGREEING TO BE BOUND BY ARBITRATION OF ANY CLAIMS OR COUNTERCLAIMS WHICH YOU OR IB MAY SUBMIT TO ARBITRATION UNDER THIS AGREEMENT. YOU ARE NOT, HOWEVER, WAIVING YOUR RIGHT TO ELECT INSTEAD TO PETITION THE CFTC TO INSTITUTE REPARATIONS PROCEEDINGS UNDER SECTION 14 OF THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT WITH RESPECT TO ANY DISPUTE WHICH MAY BE ARBITRATED PURSUANT TO THIS AGREEMENT. IN THE EVENT A DISPUTE ARISES, YOU WILL BE NOTIFIED IF IB INTENDS TO SUBMIT THE DISPUTE TO ARBITRATION. IF YOU BELIEVE A VIOLATION OF THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT IS INVOLVED AND IF YOU PREFER TO REQUEST A SECTION 14 "REPARATIONS" PROCEEDING BEFORE THE CFTC, YOU WILL HAVE 45 DAYS FROM THE DATE OF SUCH NOTICE IN WHICH TO MAKE THAT ELECTION. YOU NEED NOT SIGN THIS AGREEMENT TO OPEN OR MAINTAIN AN ACCOUNT WITH IB. SEE 17 CFR 166.5.
I hereby acknowledge that I have read and understood and that I agree to the Futures Trading Arbitration Agreement:
RISK DISCLOSURE STATEMENT FOR FOREX TRADING AND IB MULTI-CURRENCY ACCOUNTS
Rules of the U.S. National Futures Association ("NFA") require Interactive Brokers ("IB") to provide you with the following Risk Disclosure Statement
RISK DISCLOSURE STATEMENT
OFF-EXCHANGE FOREIGN CURRENCY ("FOREX") TRANSACTIONS INVOLVE THE LEVERAGED TRADING OF CONTRACTS DENOMINATED IN FOREIGN CURRENCY CONDUCTED WITH A FUTURES COMMISSION MERCHANT OR A RETAIL FOREIGN EXCHANGE DEALER AS YOUR COUNTERPARTY. BECAUSE OF THE LEVERAGE AND THE OTHER RISKS DISCLOSED HERE, YOU CAN RAPIDLY LOSE ALL OF THE FUNDS YOU DEPOSIT FOR SUCH TRADING AND YOU MAY LOSE MORE THAN YOU DEPOSIT.
YOU SHOULD BE AWARE OF AND CAREFULLY CONSIDER THE FOLLOWING POINTS BEFORE DETERMINING WHETHER SUCH TRADING IS APPROPRIATE FOR YOU.
1. TRADING IS NOT ON A REGULATED MARKET OR EXCHANGE - YOUR DEALER IS YOUR TRADING PARTNER WHICH IS A DIRECT CONFLICT OF INTEREST.
EFORE YOU ENGAGE IN ANY RETAIL FOREIGN EXCHANGE TRADING, YOU SHOULD CONFIRM THE REGISTRATION STATUS OF YOUR COUNTERPARTY. The off-exchange foreign currency trading you are entering into is not conducted on an interbank market, nor is it conducted on a futures exchange subject to regulation as a designated contract market by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission ("CFTC"). The foreign currency trades you transact are trades with the futures commission merchant or retail foreign exchange dealer as your counterparty. WHEN YOU SELL, THE DEALER IS THE BUYER. WHEN YOU BUY, THE DEALER IS THE SELLER. As a result, when you lose money trading, your dealer is making money on such trades, in addition to any fees, commissions, or spreads the dealer may charge.
2. AN ELECTRONIC TRADING PLATFORM FOR RETAIL FOREIGN CURRENCY TRANSACTIONS IS NOT AN EXCHANGE. IT IS AN ELECTRONIC CONNECTION FOR ACCESSING YOUR DEALER. THE TERMS OF AVAILABILITY OF SUCH A PLATFORM ARE GOVERNED ONLY BY YOUR CONTRACT WITH YOUR DEALER.
Any trading platform that you may use to enter off-exchange foreign currency transactions is only connected to your futures commission merchant or retail foreign exchange dealer. You are accessing that trading platform only to transact with your dealer. You are not trading with any other entities or customers of the dealer by accessing such platform. The availability and operation of any such platform, including the consequences of the unavailability of the trading platform for any reason, is governed only by the terms of your account agreement with the dealer.
3. YOUR DEPOSITS WITH THE DEALER HAVE NO REGULATORY PROTECTIONS.
All of your rights associated with your retail forex trading, including the manner and denomination of any payments made to you, are governed by the contract terms established in your account agreement with the futures commission merchant or retail foreign exchange dealer. Funds deposited by you with a futures commission merchant or retail foreign exchange dealer for trading off-exchange foreign currency transactions are not subject to the customer funds protections provided to customers trading on a contract market that is designated by the CFTC. Your dealer may commingle your funds with its own operating funds or use them for other purposes. In the event your dealer becomes bankrupt, any funds the dealer is holding for you in addition to any amounts owed to you resulting from trading, whether or not any assets are maintained in separate deposit accounts by the dealer, may be treated as an unsecured creditor's claim.
4. YOU ARE LIMITED TO YOUR DEALER TO OFFSET OR LIQUIDATE ANY TRADING POSITIONS SINCE THE TRANSACTIONS ARE NOT MADE ON AN EXCHANGE OR MARKET, AND YOUR DEALER MAY SET ITS OWN PRICES.
Your ability to close your transactions or offset positions is limited to what your dealer will offer to you, as there is no other market for these transactions. Your dealer may offer any prices it wishes, and it may offer prices derived from outside sources or not in its discretion. Your dealer may establish its prices by offering spreads from third party prices, but it is under no obligation to do so or to continue to do so. Your dealer may offer different prices to different customers at any point in time on its own terms. The terms of your account agreement alone govern the obligations your dealer has to you to offer prices and offer offset or liquidating transactions in your account and make any payments to you. The prices offered by your dealer may or may not reflect prices available elsewhere at any exchange, interbank, or other market for foreign currency.
5. PAID SOLICITORS MAY HAVE UNDISCLOSED CONFLICTS
The futures commission merchant or retail foreign exchange dealer may compensate introducing brokers for introducing your account in ways which are not disclosed to you. Such paid solicitors are not required to have, and may not have, any special expertise in trading, and may have conflicts of interest based on the method by which they are compensated. Solicitors working on behalf of futures commission merchants and retail foreign exchange dealers are required to register. You should confirm that they are, in fact registered. You should thoroughly investigate the manner in which all such solicitors are compensated and be very cautious in granting any person or entity authority to trade on your behalf. You should always consider obtaining dated written confirmation of any information you are relying on from your dealer or a solicitor in making any trading or account decisions.
FINALLY, YOU SHOULD THOROUGHLY INVESTIGATE ANY STATEMENTS BY ANY DEALERS OR SALES REPRESENTATIVES WHICH MINIMIZE THE IMPORTANCE OF, OR CONTRADICT, ANY OF THE TERMS OF THIS RISK DISCLOSURE. SUCH STATEMENTS MAY INDICATE POTENTIAL SALES FRAUD.
THIS BRIEF STATEMENT CANNOT, OF COURSE, DISCLOSE ALL THE RISKS AND OTHER ASPECTS OF TRADING OFF-EXCHANGE FOREIGN CURRENCY
TRANSACTIONS WITH A FUTURES COMMISSION MERCHANT OR RETAIL FOREIGN EXCHANGE DEALER.
PERFORMANCE OF INTERACTIVE BROKERS RETAIL CUSTOMER FOREX ACCOUNTS FOR THE PAST FOUR CALENDAR QUARTERS:
The table below sets forth the percentage of non-discretionary retail forex customer accounts maintained by Interactive Brokers LLC that were profitable and unprofitable for the past four calendar quarters. The accounts were identified and these statistics were calculated according to the definitions and interpretations set forth by the CFTC and NFA1.
TIME PERIOD/NUMBER OF ACCOUNTS/PERCENTAGE OF PROFITABLE ACCOUNTS/PERCENTAGE OF UNPROFITABLE ACCOUNTS
Q4 2015 32,956 44.94% 55.06%
Q3 2015 32,455 44.60% 55.40%
Q2 2015 31,732 46.48% 53.525%
Q1 2015 30,398 45.45% 54.55%
PAST PERFORMANCE IS NOT NECESSARILY INDICATIVE OF FUTURE RESULTS.
FURTHER INFORMATION PROVIDED BY INTERACTIVE BROKERS:
A. Overview: Interactive Brokers Multi-Currency enabled accounts allow IB Customers to trade investment products denominated in different currencies using a single IB account denominated in a "base" currency of the customer's choosing. IB Customers can also use their Multi-Currency enabled accounts to conduct foreign exchange transactions in order to manage credits or debits generated by foreign securities, options or futures trading, to convert such credits or debits back into the Customer's base currency, or to hedge or speculate. IB foreign exchange transactions offered to retail customers are forex spot transactions.
B. Nature of Your Account and Whether SIPC Covers Foreign Currency: Foreign currency trading at Interactive Brokers takes place in a securities account. Your IB securities account is governed by rules of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") and the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority. In addition, IB observes the rules of the National Futures Association in connection with foreign currency trading.
Interactive Brokers LLC is a member of the Securities Investor Protection Corporation ("SIPC"). SIPC protects cash and securities held with Interactive Brokers as specified in the Securities Investor Protection Act. SIPC protects cash, including US dollars and foreign currency, to the extent that the cash was deposited with Interactive Brokers for the purpose of purchasing securities. Whether foreign currency in your IB account would be protected by SIPC would depend in part on whether the cash was considered to be deposited with Interactive Brokers for the purpose of purchasing securities. Interactive Brokers expects that at least one factor in deciding this would be whether and the extent to which the customer engages in securities trading in addition to or in conjunction with forex trading, but, as discussed in section 3 above, funds deposited specifically for forex trading have no regulatory protections under NFA rules or CFTC regulations. For further information, you must contact your own legal counsel or SIPC.
Customer money held in the securities account is subject to Securities Exchange Act Rule 15c3-3 governing customer reserve requirements. Although relevant regulations only require computation of the 15c3-3 reserve requirement and associated segregation of customer funds to be performed weekly, IB performs such calculations and segregation on a daily basis.
C. General Risk: Customer understands and acknowledges that buying and selling securities, options, futures and other financial products that are denominated in foreign currencies or traded on foreign markets is inherently risky and requires substantial knowledge and expertise. Customers applying for Interactive Brokers Multi-Currency enabled accounts represent that they are aware of and understand the risks involved in trading foreign securities, options, futures and currencies and that they have sufficient financial resources to bear such risks.
D. Customer Responsibility for Investment Decisions: Customer acknowledges that IB representatives are not authorized to provide investment, trading or tax advice and therefore will not provide advice or guidance on trading or hedging strategies in the Multi-Currency enabled account. Customers must evaluate carefully whether any particular transaction is appropriate for them in light of their investment experience, financial objectives and needs, financial resources, and other relevant circumstances and whether they have the operational resources in place to monitor the associated risks and contractual obligations over the term of the transaction. In making these assessments, IB strongly recommends that Customers obtain independent business, legal, and accounting advice before entering into any transactions.
E. Exchange Rate Risk: Exchange rates between foreign currencies can change rapidly due to a wide range of economic, political and other conditions, exposing the Customer to risk of exchange rate losses in addition to the inherent risk of loss from trading the underlying financial product. If a Customer deposits funds in a currency to trade products denominated in a different currency, Customer's gains or losses on the underlying investment therefore may be affected by changes in the exchange rate between the currencies. If Customer is trading on margin, the impact of currency fluctuation on Customer's gains or losses may be even greater.
F. Currency Fluctuation:When Customer uses the foreign exchange facility provided by IB to purchase or sell foreign currency, fluctuation in currency exchange rates between the foreign currency and the base currency could cause substantial losses to the Customer, including losses when the Customer converts the foreign currency back into the base currency.
G. Nature of Foreign Currency Exchange Transactions Between Customer and IB: When Customer enters into a foreign exchange transaction with IB, IB, as the counterparty to Customer's trade, may effectuate that transaction by entering into an offsetting transaction with one of IB's affiliates, with another customer that enters quotes into IB's system, or with a third party bank (IB's "Forex Providers"). In such transactions, the Forex Provider is not acting in the capacity of a financial adviser or fiduciary to Customer or to IB, but rather, is taking the other side of IB's offsetting trade in an arm's length contractual transaction. Customer should be aware that the Forex Provider may from time to time have substantial positions in, and may make a market in or otherwise buy or sell instruments similar or economically related to, foreign currency transactions entered into by Customer. IB's Forex Providers may also undertake proprietary trading activities, including hedging transactions related to the initiation or termination of foreign exchange transactions with IB, which may adversely affect the market price or other factors underlying the foreign currency transaction entered into by Customer and consequently, the value of such transaction.
H. Prices on the IB Forex Platforms:The prices quoted by IB to Customers for foreign exchange transactions on IB's IdealPro platform will be determined based on Forex Provider quotes and are not determined by a competitive auction as on an exchange market. Prices quoted by IB for foreign currency exchange transactions therefore may not be the most competitive prices available. For purposes of maintaining adequate scale and competitive spreads, a minimum size is imposed on all IdealPro orders (USD $25,000 as of December 2015 but this is subject to change at any time). Orders below the minimum size are considered odd lots and limit prices for these odd lot-sized orders are not displayed through IdealPro. While odd lot marketable orders are not likely to be executed at the interbank spreads afforded to IdealPro orders, they will generally be executed at prices only slightly inferior (1-3 ticks). IB will charge transaction fees as specified by IB for foreign currency exchange transactions. IB's Forex Providers will try to earn a spread profit on transactions with IB (differential between the bid and ask prices quoted for various currencies).
I. Price Slippage; Order Cancellation and Adjustment: Prices quoted on IB's system generally reflect the prices at which IB's Forex Providers are willing to trade. Prices quoted on IB's system reflect changing market conditions and therefore quotes can and do change rapidly. As such, when a Customer order is received and processed by IB's system, the quote on IB's platform may be different from the quote displayed when the order was sent by Customer. This change in price is commonly referred to as "slippage". IB generally will not execute a Customer order at a certain price unless IB is able to trade at that price against one of IB's Forex Providers.
If Customer sends an order for a forex transaction to IB's system but Customer's requested price is no longer available and therefore the order is non-marketable, IB will not execute the order then but will place it in IB's limit order book in accordance with Customer's time-in-force instructions. Other customers can then trade against this order when it becomes the National Best Bid and Offer ("NBBO") or IB may execute the order if it becomes marketable based on prices received from IB's Forex Providers.
If Customer sends an order for a forex transaction to IB's system and the current price is more favorable for Customer than what Customer requested in the order, the order will generally be executed at the available better price.
Although IB attempts to obtain the best price for Customer orders on forex transactions, because of the inherent possibility of transmission delays between and among
Customers, IB and Forex Providers, or other technical issues, execution prices may be worse than the quotes displayed on the IB platform.
To execute your order, Interactive Brokers engages in back-to-back transactions with one or more counterparties. These counterparties on occasion may cancel or adjust forex trades with us in the event of market or technical problems. In these cases we may have to cancel or adjust forex trades that you have executed.
J. Other Risks: There are other risks that relate to trading foreign investment products and trading foreign currencies that cannot be described in detail in this document. Generally, however, foreign securities, options, futures and currency transactions involve exposure to a combination of the following risk factors: market risk, credit risk, settlement risk, liquidity risk, operational risk and legal risk. For example, there can be serious market disruptions if economic or political or other unforeseen events locally or overseas affect the market. Also, the settlement date of foreign exchange trades can vary due to time zone differences and bank holidays. When trading across foreign exchange markets, this may necessitate borrowing funds to settle foreign exchange trades. The interest rate on borrowed funds must be considered when computing the cost of trades across multiple markets. In addition to these types of risk there may be other factors such as accounting and tax treatment issues that Customers should consider.
(1)Information regarding the performance of Interactive Brokers retail forex customers for the past 5 years is available upon request.
Customer acknowledges that it has received and understood the Interactive Brokers Risk Disclosure Statement for Forex Trading And Multi-Currency Accounts.
Commodity Futures Trading Commission Risk Disclosure Statement
Interactive Brokers provides you the following disclosure document in the event that you and your advisor choose to trade futures or options on futures in your Interactive Brokers account. Please read and sign the following document.
Risk Disclosure Statement for Futures and Options This brief statement does not disclose all of the risks and other significant aspects of trading in futures and options. In light of the risks, you should undertake such transactions only if you understand the nature of the contracts (and contractual relationships) into which you are entering and the extent of your exposure to risk. Trading in futures and options is not suitable for many members of the public. You should carefully consider whether trading is appropriate for you in light of your experience, objectives, financial resources andother relevant circumstances.
1. Effect of "Leverage" or "Gearing"
Transactions in futures carry a high degree of risk. The amount of initial margin is small relative to the value of the futures contract so that transactions are `leveraged' or `geared'. A relatively small market movement will have a proportionately larger impact on the funds you have deposited or will have to deposit: this may work against you as well as for you. You may sustain a total loss of initial margin funds and any additional funds deposited with the firm to maintain your position. If the market moves against your position or market levels are increased, you may be called upon to pay substantial additional funds on short notice to maintain your position. If you fail to comply with a request for additional funds within the time prescribed, your position may be liquidated at a loss and you will be liable for any resulting deficit.
2. Risk-reducing orders or strategies
The placing of certain orders (e.g. `stop-loss' orders, where permitted under local law, or `stop-limit' orders) which are intended to limit losses to certain amount may not be effective because market conditions may make it impossible to execute such orders. Strategies using combinations of positions, such as `spread' and `straddle' positions may be as risky as taking simple `long' or `short' positions.
3. Variable degree of risk
Transactions in options carry a high degree of risk. Purchasers and sellers of options should familiarize themselves with the type of option (i.e. put or call) which they contemplate trading and the associated risks. You should calculate the extent to which the value of the options must increase for your position to become profitable, taking into account the premium and all transaction costs. The purchaser of options may offset or exercise the options or allow the options to expire. The exercise of an option results either in a cash settlement or in the purchaser acquiring or delivering the underlying interest. If the option is on a future, the purchaser will acquire a futures position with associated liabilities for margin (see the section on Futures above). If the purchased options expire worthless, you will suffer a total loss of your investment which will consist of the option premium plus transaction costs. If you are contemplating purchasing deep-out-of-the-money options, you should be aware that the chance of such options becoming profitable ordinarily is remote.
Selling (`writing' or `granting') an option generally entails considerably greater risk than purchasing options. Although the premium received by the seller is fixed, the seller may sustain a loss well in excess of that amount. The seller will be liable for additional margin to maintain the position if the market moves unfavorably. The seller will also be exposed to the risk of the purchaser exercising the option and the seller will be obligated to either settle the option in cash or to acquire or deliver the underlying interest. If the option is on a future, the seller will acquire a position in a future with associated liabilities for margin (see the section on Futures above). If the option is `covered' by the seller holding a corresponding position in the underlying interest or a future or another option, the risk may be reduced. If the option is not covered, the risk of loss can be unlimited.
Certain exchanges in some jurisdictions permit deferred payment of the option premium, exposing the purchaser to liability for margin payments not exceeding the amount of the premium. The purchaser is still subject to the risk of losing the premium and transaction costs. When the option is exercised expires, the purchaser is responsible for any unpaid premium outstanding at that time.
Additional risks common to futures and options.
4. Terms and conditions of contracts
You should ask the firm with which you deal about the terms and conditions of the specific futures or options which you are trading and associated obligations (e.g. the circumstances under which you may become obligated to make or take delivery of the underlying interest of a futures contract and, in respect of options, expiration dates and restrictions on the time for exercise). Under certain circumstances the specifications of outstanding contracts (including the exercise price of an option) may be modified by the exchange or clearing house to reflect changes in the underlying interest.
5. Suspension or restriction of trading and pricing relationships
Market conditions (e.g. illiquidity) and/or the operation of the rules of certain markets (e.g. the suspension of trading in any contract or contract month because of price limits or "circuit breakers") may increase the risk of loss by making it difficult or impossible to effect transactions or liquidate/offset positions. If you have sold options, this may increase the risk of loss.
Further, normal pricing relationships between the underlying interest and the future, and the underlying interest and the option may not exist. This can occur when, for example, the futures contract underlying the option is subject to price limits while the option is not. The absence of an underlying reference price may make it difficult to judge "fair" value.
6. Deposited cash and property
You should familiarize yourself with the protections accorded money or other property you deposit for domestic and foreign transactions, particularly in the event of a firm insolvency or bankruptcy. The extent to which you may recover your money or property may be governed by specific legislation or local rules. In some jurisdictions, property which had been specifically identifiable as your own will be pro-rated in the same manner as cash for purposes or distribution in the event of a shortfall.
7. Commission and other charges
Before you begin to trade, you should obtain a clear explanation of all commission, fees and other charges for which you will be liable. These charges will affect your net profit (if any) or increase your loss.
8. Transactions in other jurisdictions
Transactions on markets in other jurisdictions, including markets formally linked to a domestic market, may expose you to additional risk. Such markets may be subject to regulation which may offer different or diminished investor protection. Before you trade you should inquire about any rules relevant to your particular transactions. Your local regulatory authority will be unable to compel the enforcement of the rules of regulatory authorities or markets in other jurisdictions where your transactions have been effected. You should ask the firm with which you deal for details about the types of redress available in both your home jurisdiction and other relevant jurisdictions before you start to trade.
9. Currency risks
The profit or loss in transactions in foreign currency-denominated contracts (whether they are traded in your own or another jurisdiction) will be affected by fluctuations in currency rates where there is a need to convert from the currency denomination of the contract to another currency.
10. Trading facilities
Most open-outcry and electronic trading facilities are supported by computer-based component systems for the order-routing, execution, matching, registration or clearing of trades. As with all facilities and systems, they are vulnerable to temporary disruption or failure. Your ability to recover certain losses may be subject to limits on liability imposed by the system provider, the market, the clearing house and/or member firms. Such limits may vary: you should ask the firm with which you deal for details in this respect.
11. Electronic trading
Trading on an electronic trading system may differ not only from trading in an open-outcry market but also from trading on other electronic trading systems. If you undertake transactions on an electronic trading system, you will be exposed to risks associated with the system including the failure of hardware and software. The result of any system failure may be that your order is either not executed according to your instructions or is not executed at all.
12. Off-exchange transactions
In some jurisdictions, and only then in restricted circumstances, firms are permitted to effect off-exchange transactions. The firm with which you deal may be acting as your counterparty to the transaction. It may be difficult or impossible to liquidate an existing position, to assess the value, to determine a fair price or to assess the exposure to risk. For these reasons, these transactions may involve increased risks. Off-exchange transactions may be less regulated or subject to a separate regulatory regime. Before you undertake such transactions, you should familiarize yourself with applicable rules and attendant risks.